# Punnett Square

Created by: Team Biology at Examples.com, Last Updated: July 24, 2024

## Punnett Square

People inherit genes, mutations, and adaptations that their parents will pass on to them. There are many ways people can predict the outcome of the person’s genetic makeup, which will dictate various traits, the person may have.

## What Is Punnett Square?

A Punnett square is a table-like tool people can use to predict the various genotypes that will be active in the breeding or cross-breeding of two organisms. A person can use this tool in many different contexts, tones, and themes, which will range from plants to various animals.

## How to Use a Punnett Square

Punnett square has two different modes in the x and y-axis, which will represent the dominant and recessive genes of a specific trait or characteristic. The Punnett square will help calculate the chances of the offspring obtaining the specific trait or characteristic.

### Step 1: Obtain or Use a Punnett Square Outline

Begin by obtaining a Punett square , which will help provide a base you can use to easily make your Punnett square. This will also help ensure that you have all the elements the Punnett square will need.

### Step 2: List Out the Dominant and Recessive Genes

List out the dominant and recessive genes on the x-axis and y-axis on the punnet square respectively.  Write down the dominant genes letters in uppercase and the recessive genes letters in lowercase on the two squares of the x and y-axis.

### Step 3: Calculate the Percentage of Inheritance

In each quadrant of the Punnett square, pair up the uppercase and lowercase letters. Each pairing of the letters in the Punnett square corresponds to a certain percentage chance of the person obtaining the specific characteristic and genes.

### Step 4: Repeat Steps 1 to 3 until You Have Listed Out All the Genes

You can opt to repeat steps 1 to 3 until you have listed out all the genes and characteristics you would like to list down. Be sure to appropriately list out the amount of dominant and recessive genes in the equation per trait or characteristic.

## What is a genotype?

Genotype is the scoring of the specific combination of dominant and recessive genes that are represented in the four quadrants of the Punnett square. Often in the form of two of the same letter with one that is uppercase and another one that is lowercase. This will also represent the percentage chance a specific trait or characteristic will be passed to their offspring.

## What is a phenotype?

Phenotype are the labels of the Punnett square, which represent the traits or characteristics that will either be the recessive or dominant gene in the Punnett square. The phenotype also factors various environmental and racial factors into the mix.

## What are the three types of phenotypes?

There are three basic types of phenotypes that people based on the types of alleles or genotypes in the combination. These basic types will manifest as AA, Aa, and aa where A is the dominant gene’s genotype and a is the recessive genes genotype.

The Punnett square is a tool people use to determine the offspring’s chances of obtaining specific genes and characteristics from their parents. Proper usage of this tool will help the person identify which traits will more likely manifest in the person.

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