Evolution is a very complicated process that can include many internal or external factors. Coevolution is a type of evolution that is brought about by the interaction between two different species of organisms.
Coevolution is the process where two species adapt and evolve in relation to one another. This means that one of the species has directly affected the evolution or adaptation of the other and vice versa. This can come in the form of the coevolution of phage (bacteria) and their hosts and may be observed in the relationship between bees and flowers.
Coevolution can come in various shapes and forms as this is a strategic form of adaptation brought about by the relationship of two species of organism. Coevolution can come in multiple forms and is generally classified into two different types pairwise or diffuse coevolution.
Begin by checking if one of the organisms in the coevolution has adapted to a group of interrelated species of organisms. If there is a presence of a group of interrelated species then the coevolution can be noted as a diffuse or guild coevolution.
After you have done that, you must now illustrate the type of relationship that is exhibited by the two species. This will help determine whether the coevolution is a product of commensalism, parasitism, predator, and prey, or mutualism. For example, the bacteria in our guts do not cause us to harm in any way shape, or form, have coevolved with us due to our mutualistic relationship.
When you have finished illustrating the relationship between both species, you must then research the lineage and genealogy of the two species in the coevolution. This will help you understand the various mutations, adaptations, and genetics that are intertwined with the coevolution of both species.
The interaction between both species can indicate the way the species have coevolved with one another. If the adaptation serves to help the other species, then that will mean the relationship between both species is mutualistic.
Pairwise coevolution, also known as specific coevolution, is the phenomenon wherein one of the species has an interconnected relationship with another species and causes the other species to have an adaptive change or evolution. For example, remoras and stingrays have a mutualistic relationship and may have caused stingrays to have an adaptation that will suit remoras more. Pairwise coevolution has a focus on mutualism or mutual relationships between two species but may also occur in parasitism and commensalism.
Diffuse coevolution, also known as guild coevolution, is the coevolution between a large group of interrelated species and another individual species. An example of guild coevolution is an insect’s adaptation to deter a large group of birds. The insect can adapt to have a bitter poison or taste to prevent a general group of birds from feasting on the insect. Alternatively, a bird can also adapt to resist the poison or taste resulting in guild coevolution. This usually occurs in predatory relationships where the prey will adapt and evolve to avoid being eaten.
Yes, humans have coevolved with dogs due to the mutualistic relationship they both exhibit. Humans have domesticated dogs through various means and have converted them to become reliant on humans. This came in the form of early humans adopting wolf pups and taking care of them until they were adults. These early forms of dogs helped humans gather food and provide protection, ensuring a long-lasting mutualistic relationship between the two species.
Coevolution is the phenomena or process wherein two species of organisms adapt and evolve with each other. This primarily comes in different forms like pairwise and diffuse coevolution and is a byproduct of specific relationships. In conclusion, there are a plethora of adaptations and evolutions that are observable due to the presence of coevolution.