Essay on Bhagath Singh

Bhagat Singh, a name that conjures images of bravery, sacrifice, and the fervent pursuit of freedom, remains one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. Born on September 28, 1907, in Banga, Punjab, in what is now Pakistan, Singh grew up during a period of intense socio-political upheaval in India. His life, though brief, was marked by a deep-seated desire to free India from British colonial rule, and his actions and writings continue to inspire millions across the globe. This essay explores the life, ideology, contributions, and enduring legacy of Bhagat Singh, providing a comprehensive understanding suitable for students participating in an essay writing competition.

Early Life and Influences

Bhagat Singh was born into a Sikh family with a history of political activism. His father, Kishan Singh, and uncle, Ajit Singh, were prominent figures in the struggle against colonial rule, imbuing young Bhagat with a strong sense of nationalism from an early age. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919, in which hundreds of unarmed Indian civilians were killed by British troops, was a turning point in his life, profoundly affecting his outlook towards the British Raj.

Political Awakening and Revolutionary Activities

Singh’s political engagement began with his involvement in the Non-Cooperation Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. However, the suspension of the movement following the Chauri Chaura incident led him to disillusionment with Gandhi’s strategy of non-violence. Seeking a more direct and assertive approach to independence, Singh joined the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), a revolutionary group committed to the overthrow of British rule through armed struggle.

Singh’s ideology was deeply influenced by European revolutionary movements and socialist ideals. He envisioned an independent India where social justice and equality prevailed, free from not only British rule but also the shackles of caste and religious discrimination.

The Turning Points: Lahore Conspiracy Case and Simon Commission Protest

Bhagat Singh’s revolutionary activities reached their zenith with two significant events: the Lahore Conspiracy Case and the protest against the Simon Commission.

In response to the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai during a peaceful protest against the Simon Commission, Singh, alongside his associates, plotted to avenge Rai’s death. The plan resulted in the killing of John Saunders, a British police officer, mistaking him for James A. Scott, the officer responsible for ordering the lathi charge on Rai. This incident led to Singh’s arrest and the subsequent Lahore Conspiracy Case, which would eventually lead to his martyrdom.

In a daring act of defiance and to protest against the Simon Commission, which was set up by the British to report on the political situation in India without any Indian representation, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw non-lethal bombs and leaflets inside the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi. They surrendered after the act, using their trial as a platform to publicize their cause and the demand for India’s independence.

Ideological Contributions and Writings

Bhagat Singh was not just a revolutionary by action but also by thought. While in jail, he penned several essays and letters, articulating his vision for an independent India and critiquing the colonial regime. His most notable works include “Why I am an Atheist,” an essay explaining his rejection of religious faith in favor of rational thinking and scientific understanding, and his critique of the capitalist system which he believed perpetuated social injustice.

The Trial and Martyrdom

The trial of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev for the Lahore Conspiracy Case was fraught with legal irregularities, including the passing of a special ordinance (later called the Lahore Conspiracy Case Ordinance) to constitute a special tribunal for their trial, bypassing the normal legal process. Despite widespread national and international support for their release, Singh and his comrades were sentenced to death.

On March 23, 1931, Bhagat Singh, along with Rajguru and Sukhdev, was executed in Lahore Jail. His martyrdom at the age of 23 made him a symbol of India’s struggle for independence. His last words, “Inquilab Zindabad” (Long Live the Revolution), echoed his undying spirit for freedom and change.


Bhagat Singh’s legacy transcends his revolutionary activities; he embodies the spirit of resistance against oppression and injustice. He is celebrated not only for his courage and sacrifice but also for his forward-thinking ideas on social reform, nationalism, and the importance of youth in the political process. Today, Bhagat Singh remains a towering figure in Indian history, his life and work continuing to inspire generations of Indians to strive for a society based on equality, justice, and freedom.


In conclusion, Bhagat Singh’s contribution to India’s freedom struggle is immeasurable. His unwavering commitment to the cause, despite the ultimate sacrifice, showcases the depth of his conviction and the strength of his character. Through his actions and writings, Singh has left an indelible mark on the fabric of Indian nationalism, embodying the ideals of freedom, justice, and social equity. As we reflect on his life and legacy, we are reminded of the enduring power of individual agency in effecting profound societal change. Bhagat Singh’s story is not just a historical account but a perennial source of inspiration, urging us to envision and work towards a better and just society.

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