Stop Words

Team English -
Created by: Team English -, Last Updated: April 25, 2024

Stop Words

Stop words are commonly used words in a language that are often filtered out or ignored in natural language processing (NLP) and search engine queries due to their high frequency and low informational content. Examples include “the,” “is,” “at,” “which,” and “on.” These words are considered to be of little value in retrieving meaningful information or in understanding the semantic context of text. By removing stop words, algorithms and processes can focus on the more significant words that contribute to the understanding of text, improving efficiency in search results, data analysis, and language processing tasks.

Stop words can be used in a whole range of tasks and here are a few:

  1. Supervised machine learning – removing stop words from the feature space
  2. Clustering – removing stop words prior to generating clusters
  3. Information retrieval – preventing stop words from being indexed
  4. Text summarization– excluding stop words from contributing to summarization scores & removing stop words when computing ROUGE scores

Download List of Stop Words - PDF

100+ List of  “Stop Words” This Image

Stop words are a fundamental aspect of natural language processing and search engine optimization. These are the words that are often filtered out before processing textual data because they are deemed to be of little value in understanding the essence of content. Typically, these include common articles, conjunctions, and prepositions such as “the,” “and,” “but,” and “or.” While they are crucial for grammatical structure in language, their ubiquitous nature means they do little to distinguish one piece of text from another in analytical contexts.

a about above after
again against all am
an and any are
as at be because
been before being below
between both but by
could did do does
doing down during each
few for from further
had has have having
he her here hers
him himself his how
i if in into
is it its itself
just me more most
my myself no nor
not now of off
on once only or
other our ours out
over own same she
should so some such
than that the their
theirs them then there
these they this those
through to too under
until up very was
we were what when
where which while who
whom why will with
you your yours yourself

Types of Stop Words

Stop words can be categorized based on their role and function in language. Here are some types of stop words:

  1. Articles: These include words like “a,” “an,” and “the.” They are used to define a noun as specific or unspecific, but often don’t add significant meaning in text analysis.
  2. Conjunctions: Words like “and,” “but,” “or,” “for,” “nor,” “so,” and “yet” connect phrases, clauses, or words. While they’re essential for grammatical structure, they usually carry little meaning on their own in the context of text processing.
  3. Prepositions: These are words that show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence, such as “in,” “at,” “by,” “from,” “with,” “about,” and “against.” In many analytical processes, these words are considered non-essential.
  4. Pronouns: Words like “he,” “she,” “it,” “they,” “you,” “we,” and possessive pronouns like “your,” “their,” “our,” etc., are often filtered out as they’re common and usually don’t contribute to the distinctiveness of a text.
  5. Auxiliary Verbs: Also known as helping verbs, these include words like “be,” “is,” “are,” “was,” “were,” “do,” “does,” “did,” “have,” “has,” “had.” They offer grammatical support to main verbs but are often removed in text mining.
  6. Adverbs: Especially common adverbs like “very,” “just,” “too,” “also,” “then,” and “there.” While they modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, they often add minimal additional meaning in the context of data analysis.
  7. Quantifiers: Words that denote quantity, like “some,” “any,” “few,” “more,” “much,” “each,” “every,” etc. These words can be less informative for understanding the context or sentiment of a text.
  8. Interjections: Words like “oh,” “wow,” “hey,” and others that express emotion or sentiment but typically do not carry significant meaning when analyzing text content.
  9. Common Verbs and Adjectives: High-frequency verbs like “get,” “go,” “make,” and adjectives like “good,” “big,” “able” can sometimes be treated as stop words because they’re overly generic

Stop Words for Sentiment Analysis This Image

Sentiment analysis leverages natural language processing to determine the emotional tone behind words. In this context, certain stop words might be excluded to focus on keywords that more strongly indicate sentiment. However, some stop words can contribute to understanding nuances in sentiment and should be considered carefully in analysis.

  1. Not – Used to make a word or sentence negative.
  2. But – Used to introduce something contrasting.
  3. No – Used to give a negative response.
  4. Very – Used for emphasis.
  5. Too – To a higher degree than desired.
  6. Just – Exactly or precisely.
  7. So – To such a great extent.
  8. Only – And no one or nothing more besides.
  9. Really – Very or very much.
  10. However – Used to introduce a contrasting statement.

Stop Words in Information Retrieval This Image

In information retrieval, stop words are filtered out before or after processing queries. Removing these words can improve search efficiency and relevance. The following list includes common stop words that, while necessary for grammatical structure, are often omitted to streamline search processes and improve the accuracy of search results.

  1. The – Definite article.
  2. Is – Third person singular present of “be.”
  3. At – Expressing location or arrival.
  4. Which – Asking for information specifying one or more.
  5. On – Positioned at the surface.
  6. This – Used to identify a specific person or thing.
  7. For – Indicating the purpose of an object or action.
  8. With – Accompanied by another person or thing.
  9. By – Identifying the agent performing an action.
  10. An – Indefinite article before a vowel sound.

List of  “A” Stop Words

a about
above after
again against
all am
an and
any are
as at

List of  “B” Stop Words

be because
been before
being below
between both
but by

List of “C” Stop Words

can cannot
could can’t

List of “D” Stop Words

do does
did didn’t
doing don’t

List of “E” Stop Words

each either else

List of “F” Stop Words

for from
few further

List of “G” Stop Words

get got
gets getting

List of “H” Stop Words

had hadn’t
has hasn’t
have haven’t
having he
he’d he’ll
he’s her
here here’s
hers herself
him himself
his how

List of “I” Stop Words

I I’d
I’ll I’m
I’ve if
in into
is isn’t
it it’s
its itself

List of “K” Stop Words

keep keeps
kept knowing
known knows

List of “L” Stop Words

last lately
later least
less let
let’s like
likely little
look looking

List of “M” Stop Words

many may
me mean
meanwhile might
mine more
most mostly
much must
my myself

List of “N” Stop Words

name namely
nd near
nearly necessary
need needs
neither never
new next
no nobody
non noone
nor normally
not nothing
novel now

List of “O” Stop Words

obviously of
off often
oh ok
okay old
on once
one ones
only onto
or other
others otherwise
ought our
ours ourselves
out outside
over overall

List of “P” Stop Words

particular particularly
per perhaps
placed please
plus possible
presumably probably

List of “R” Stop Words

rather rd
re really
reasonably regarding
regardless regards
relatively respectively

List of “S” Stop Words

said same
saw say
saying says
second secondly
see seeing
seem seemed
seeming seems
seen self
selves sensible
sent serious
seriously seven
several shall
she should
shouldn’t since
six so
some somebody
somehow someone
something sometime
sometimes somewhat
somewhere soon
sorry specified
specify specifying
still sub
such sup

List of “T” Stop Words

take taken
tell tends
th than
thank thanks
thanx that
thats the
their theirs
them themselves
then thence
there theres
therefore therein
theres thereupon
these they
theyd theyll
theyre theyve
think third
this thorough
thoroughly those
though three
through throughout
thru thus
to together
too took
toward towards
tried tries
truly try
trying ts
twice two

List of “U” Stop Words

un under
unfortunately unless
unlikely until
unto up
upon us
use used
useful uses
using usually

List of “W” Stop Words

want wants
was wasnt
way we
welcome well
went were
werent what
whats whatever
when whence
whenever where
whereafter whereas
whereby wherein
whereupon where’s
wherever whether
which while
whither who
who’s whoever
whole whom
whomever whose
why will
willing wish
with within
without wont
wonder would
would wouldnt

List of “Y” Stop Words

yes yet
you youd
youll your
youre yours
yourself yourselves

In conclusion, understanding stop words is pivotal for refining content and enhancing its relevance in search engines and text analyses. By strategically managing these common but less significant words, we can craft clearer, more focused communications. This knowledge empowers educators and writers alike to optimize their content for better engagement and effectiveness, making every word count in their narratives

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