Before Copernicus asserted the idea that the Earth revolved around the stars, the ancient people believed that the celestial bodies in space revolved around Earth. The scientific method allows us to use observation and data gathering to understand the inner workings of our world.
The scientific method is the structured process or approach that all scientists and researchers must adhere to so that the board or commission will consider their research valid. The nature of the scientific method is objective, which will distance the researcher from their research to prevent bias.
The scientific method has a process that should be followed step by step. When using the scientific method, you must have an interest in the field or topic adjacent to the problem or the phenomenon. The scientific method steps should be done in order as each step will cascade into the next.
Begin by identifying the problem or phenomenon you want to investigate. This will act as the overall topic of the research you are conducting or undertaking.
After you have identified the problem or phenomenon, you must read and review any previous literature or study that is adjacent and related to the problem or phenomenon you have chosen. This will create relevance and indicate whether any previous studies tried to investigate the problem or phenomenon you have chosen.
Formulate the hypothesis and research question. This will decide the specific type of research you will have to do. If inductive reasoning is required then you must do a qualitative approach to your research. If deductive reasoning is required then you must fo a quantitative approach instead. Design the experiment and data collection with the appropriate approach.
After designing the experiment, begin to obtain data through various methods appropriate to the type of research you are conducting. These data can come in the form of numerical statistics, real numbers, or paragraphs and phrases. When you have the data, organize and analyze the data to obtain codes for interpretation.
Through analyzing the data, you will be able to obtain codes that you can use to interpret the data you have collected. This will form the basis of the conclusion you will be able to make. Not only that but the researcher will use the data to determine whether or not the phenomenon or problem has been explained or solved.
Using the interpretation, you will be able to create a conclusion that will close off your research. This should also include a brief explanation of the implications of the data and a short call to action
The scientific method allows the researcher to approach their research and thesis systematically. The scientific method eliminates the existence of bias by implementing a structured approach. This means that the scientific method acts as the standardized approach that all researchers, new or old, will have to adhere to the steps laid out by the scientific method. It is important because all researchers have a bias toward a specific outcome, which may lead to botched or doctored results. Because of the scientific method, researches are more likely to be credible and reliable.
There are many contributors to the current state and processes that are integrated into the scientific method. During the golden age of Islam, mathematician Ibn al-Haytham posited that an inductive hypothesis must be accompanied and supported by confirmable mathematical evidence. Not only did Ibn al-Haytham assert what a hypothesis should have, but he also developed a process of observation and experimentation. Later on, Francis Bacon refined the inductive process of research and produced the following steps: empirical observation, systematic experimentation, analysis of experimental evidence, and inductive reasoning. Descartes instead, felt that a deductive research approach will lead to a higher understanding of the world, and developed a deductive research process. This will lead to the modern state of the scientific method, where Isaac Newton contributed to the idea that induction and deduction are needed to understand and figure out the various phenomena of our world. In the end, the scientific method is an ever-evolving part of science that has no single creator.
The scientific method is composed of two different approaches, each with its topics, methodology, and results. These two approaches are quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research uses deductive reasoning and thinking to obtain data and an understanding of specific phenomena. This approach utilizes a quantity over quality approach and requires numerous amounts of data gathered through surveys and group interviews. Qualitative research on the other hand utilizes quantitative inductive reasoning and thinking to understand more subjective and personal phenomena. This approach adopts the quality over quantity approach and will have different methods. This means that the scientific method is ingrained into these two types of research.
The scientific method is a standardized and structured approach to research that all researchers and scientists adhere to. Not only does it provide structure to the whole research process, but it also allows the researchers to objectively approach their research with minimal or no bias.