Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids, and DNA in particular, are essential macromolecules for maintaining life in its current state. DNA stores the genetic ethnicity information that is handed down from parents to offspring. This information includes instructions for how (and when) to manufacture the myriad of proteins and complex carbohydrates that are required to construct mutation and maintain cells, tissues, bacteria, and organisms that are capable of acting normally.

1. Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids

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2. Introduction to Nucleic Acids

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3. Nucleic Acids and Proteins

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4. Structure and Properties of Nucleic Acids

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5. Nucleic Acids Convey Genetic Information

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6. Nucleic Acids Lecture Notes

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7. Modified Nucleic Acids

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 8. Nucleic Acids Nucleotides

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9. Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

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10. Nucleic Acids web Assignment

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11. Chemistry of Nucleic Acids

 

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12. Characteristics of Nucleic Acids

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13. Emerging Clinical Applications of Nucleic Acids

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14. Modeling Nucleic Acids

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What are nucleic acids?

Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are an integral part of every known form of life. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids, and each one consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Both deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are examples of nucleic acids.

How to make nucleic acids

Biopolymers are the building blocks from which nucleic acids are constructed; they are made up of repeating sequences of monomers (the polymers’ building blocks). The structure of nucleic acid may be deduced from the structure of the nucleotides that compose it.

The ionic compund bonds between the nucleotide’s three constituents make up the molecule. A phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base make up the whole.

Step 1: A phosphate group

Nucleic acids begin to take shape as phosphate groups. An ionic bond between phosphorus atom with four negatively charged oxygen atoms linked to it makes up the phosphate group.

Step 2: A 5-carbon sugar

Ribose and deoxyribose, both of which have five carbons (making them pentoses), may be found in nucleic acid. The sugars ribose and deoxyribose have the same chemical element composition: 5 carbons and 1 oxygen. Hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups are bonded to the carbon atoms.

Both the second and third carbons in ribose sugar are hydroxylated. The sugar known as deoxyribose has a hydroxyl group connected to its third carbon atom and just hydrogen atoms attached to its second and fourth carbon atoms after they enter into physical change.

Step 3: Nitrogen base

Because of its ability to donate electrons to other atoms, the nitrogen atom in nucleic acid serves as a base that helps to generate new molecules. It has the ability to form rings by binding to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules.

Step 4: Nucleic acid bonds

The formation of DNA involves the use of hydrogen bonds between the RNA strand and another polynucleotide with a similar but anti-parallel structure. The pyrimidines and purines of the nitrogen bases are bound to one another by these hydrogen bonds. Guanine links to cytosine and adenine connect to thymine via a mechanism termed complementary base pairing. This ensures that the base pairs always occur in the most energy-efficient configuration and don’t go into a decomposition reaction.

FAQs

What is the function of a DNA

DNA stores and codes all of the body’s genetic information. The DNA molecule is designed to pass down certain bits of information from parents to offspring.

DNA’s four nucleotides, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, can only form chemical bonds with one another in a certain order (adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine), hence the order in which these nucleotides are duplicated is determined by the DNA sequence itself at each cell division. This allows for the creation of genetically identical duplicates that may be handed down through the generations.

What is the role of RNA?

The expression of the information that is contained in DNA to build proteins is controlled by RNA, which plays a vital part in the process of protein synthesis and is necessary for its completion. In addition, several viruses employ this mechanism to transmit genetic information from host to host.

Which nucleic acids are involved in generating energy for cellular processes?

Created from the nitrogenous base adenine, the 5-carbon sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleic acid that plays a role in cellular energy production. The energy for the cell comes from the high-energy bonds formed between the three phosphate groups. ATP is the cellular energy source that allows all living cells to operate.

Nucleic acid is the precursor of both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), and is therefore fundamental to all forms of life. Both living cells and some viruses contain this protein. Among of the many roles that nucleic acids play include cell formation, information storage and processing, protein synthesis, and ATP production.

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