Last Updated: April 26, 2024


Dive into the world of Arsenic with our detailed guide, tailored for educators. Arsenic, often misunderstood, plays a crucial role in various fields. This guide not only clarifies its definition and meaning but also offers practical usage tips. By incorporating real-world examples, we make understanding Arsenic straightforward and relevant. Ideal for teachers, this resource simplifies complex concepts, ensuring you can convey its significance effectively to your students.

What is Arsenic?

Arsenic is a naturally occurring chemical element, known for its paradoxical presence in nature. It’s found both as a life-sustaining trace element and a potentially harmful contaminant. This dual nature makes understanding Arsenic essential, especially in fields like environmental science and chemistry. Simple yet comprehensive, our definition helps teachers explain Arsenic’s complexity to students, fostering a deeper understanding of its impact on the world around us.

Arsenic Element Information

Arsenic Element Information

Other Metalloids

Boron (B)
Silicon (Si)
Germanium (Ge)
Antimony (Sb)
Tellurium (Te)

Arsenic Formula

  • Formula: As
  • Composition: A single arsenic atom.
  • Bond Type: Arsenic forms covalent bonds, due to its five valence electrons.
  • Molecular Structure: Metallic gray, crystalline in its most stable form.
  • Electron Configuration: 33 electrons, with the configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁶ 3d¹⁰ 4s² 4p³.
  • Significance: Utilized in lead alloys, semiconductors, and as a poison.
  • Role in Chemistry: Arsenic plays a significant role in the synthesis of organoarsenic compounds and in environmental chemistry.

Atomic Structure of Arsenic

Atomic Structure of Arsenic

Properties of Arsenic

Properties of Arsenic

Physical Properties of Arsenic

Property Detail
Appearance Metallic grey, crystalline solid
Density 5.727 g/cm³ at 20°C, one of the densest elements
Melting Point Sublimes at 615°C, does not have a liquid state at atmospheric pressure
Boiling Point 613°C (sublimation point)
Crystal Structure Rhombohedral, similar to the crystal structure of antimony
State at Room Temperature Solid, but it sublimates (directly transitions from solid to gas) at higher temperatures
Hardness Brittle, easily fractured
Electrical Conductivity Poor conductor in its grey form, semi-metallic properties

Chemical Properties of Arsenic

Arsenic, a metalloid, exhibits a range of chemical properties due to its position in the periodic table.

  1. Reaction with Oxygen: Arsenic combines with oxygen to form arsenic oxide (As₂O₃) when heated. The reaction can be represented as:  Arsenic oxide is a white solid and is toxic.
  2. Reaction with Halogens: It reacts with halogens like chlorine and fluorine to form arsenic halides. For example, the reaction with chlorine yields arsenic trichloride:  Arsenic trichloride is a colorless, oily liquid.
  3. Reaction with Hydrogen: When heated with hydrogen, arsenic forms arsine (AsH₃), a highly toxic and flammable gas:
  4. Reaction with Sulfur: Arsenic combines with sulfur to form various arsenic sulfides, such as realgar (As₄S₄) and orpiment (As₂S₃).
  5. Formation of Arsenides: It forms arsenides when reacting with metals, similar to how it forms oxides with oxygen.
  6. Stability in Air: Arsenic is relatively stable in dry air but oxidizes (tarnishes) in moist air, forming a surface layer of arsenic oxide.
  7. Solubility: Arsenic compounds exhibit varying solubilities; arsenic oxides are generally soluble in water and acids.
  8. Toxicity: Arsenic and many of its compounds are poisonous and are used in insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides.
Property Value with Unit
Boiling Point 615 °C (Sublimation)
Melting Point 817 °C (under pressure)
Critical Temperature Not applicable
Critical Pressure Not applicable
Heat of Vaporization (Sublimation) 34.76 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion 24.44 kJ/mol (at 817 °C)
Specific Heat Capacity (at 25°C) 0.328 J/g·K
Thermal Conductivity 50.2 W/m·K

Material Properties of Arsenic

Property Value with Unit
Density (at 20°C) 5.727 g/cm³
Mohs Hardness 3.5
Solubility Insoluble in water
Appearance Metallic grey
Crystal Structure Rhombohedral
Phase at Room Temperature Solid

Electromagnetic Properties of Arsenic

Property Value with Unit
Electrical Resistivity (at 20°C) 333 µΩ·m
Thermal Conductivity 50.2 W/m·K
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 2.18
Ionization Energy First: 9.7886 eV

Nuclear Properties of Arsenic

Property Value with Unit
Atomic Number 33
Atomic Mass 74.921595 amu
Isotopes ^75As (100%)
Nuclear Spin (for ^75As) 3/2 ℏ
Neutron Cross Section (for ^75As) 4.5 barns
Nuclear Magnetic Moment (for ^75As) 1.4398 µN

Chemical Compounds of Arsenic

Arsenic forms several important chemical compounds, each with distinct properties and applications. Here are the top six arsenic compounds:

  1. Arsenic Trioxide (As₂O₃)
    It’s a white, crystalline powder used in the production of pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides.
  2. Arsenic Trisulfide (As₂S₃)
    A yellow compound used in the manufacturing of fireworks and as a pigment in glass and ceramics.
  3. Arsenic Pentoxide (As₂O₅)
    Utilized as an oxidizing agent and in the production of arsenic acid.
  4. Arsenic Trichloride (AsCl₃)
    A colorless, oily liquid used in organic synthesis and in the manufacturing of arsenic-based compounds.
  5. Arsenic Acid (H₃AsO₄)
    Preparation: Arsenic pentoxide dissolved in water.
    Used in the production of wood preservatives and lead arsenate.
  6. Sodium Arsenite (NaAsO₂)
    Employed in the textile industry and as a herbicide.

Isotopes of Arsenic

Isotope Atomic Mass Half-Life Notes
⁷⁴As 73.9239 17.77 days Used in nuclear medicine and research.
⁷⁵As 74.9216 Stable The only stable isotope, common in nature.
⁷⁶As 75.9214 26.3 hours Beta emitter, used in biochemical research.
⁷⁷As 76.9206 38.83 hours Used in tracer studies in environmental research.
⁷⁸As 77.9218 90.7 minutes Decays to stable ⁷⁸Se, used in nuclear medicine.
⁷⁹As 78.9208 9.01 days Radioactive, used in scientific studies.

Uses of Arsenic

Uses of Arsenic

Pesticides and Herbicides

Arsenic has been historically used in pesticides and herbicides due to its toxic properties. While the usage has declined due to environmental and health concerns, it remains a component in some wood preservatives and weed killers. These compounds help in controlling pests and unwanted vegetation, ensuring crop protection.

Wood Preservation

Arsenic compounds, especially chromated copper arsenate (CCA), have been used extensively for wood preservation. They protect wood from rot, decay, and termite infestation, making them ideal for outdoor applications like decks and playground equipment.

Glass Production

In glass manufacturing, arsenic removes impurities, leading to clearer glass products. It acts as a decolorizer, countering the effects of other elements that might cause coloration in the glass.

Semiconductor Industry

Arsenic is crucial in the semiconductor industry. When combined with gallium (as gallium arsenide, GaAs), it creates a compound essential for making diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. These components are vital for the functioning of mobile phones, solar cells, and satellite communications.


Although its use has decreased, arsenic has historical significance in medicine. Arsenic trioxide, specifically, is used in the treatment of a type of cancer known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It helps induce remission in patients with this specific cancer type.

Commercial Production of Arsenic

The commercial production of arsenic primarily involves the processing of arsenic-containing minerals, the most common being arsenopyrite (FeAsS). The production process typically includes the following steps:

  1. Mining and Extraction: Arsenopyrite is mined from the earth, often as a by-product of mining other metals like gold and copper.
  2. Roasting: The extracted ore is roasted in the presence of air. This process converts the arsenic sulfide into arsenic oxide (As₂O₃), releasing sulfur dioxide (SO₂), a valuable by-product used in sulfuric acid production.
  3. Reduction: The arsenic oxide is then reduced, typically with carbon, at high temperatures. This reduction process yields metallic arsenic.
  4. Refining: The metallic arsenic is purified to remove impurities, resulting in commercially viable arsenic.
  5. Final Processing: Depending on its intended use, the arsenic may undergo further chemical processes to form compounds like arsenic trioxide, sodium arsenate, or other arsenic-based chemicals.

This production process must be carefully controlled to manage the toxic nature of arsenic and minimize environmental and health risks associated with arsenic exposure.

Health Effects of Arsenic

Arsenic, a naturally occurring element, can have significant health effects, especially when exposure occurs over a prolonged period or at high levels. The impact on health varies depending on the form and concentration of arsenic, as well as the route and duration of exposure.

Acute Poisoning

In cases of high-level exposure, acute arsenic poisoning can occur. Symptoms include severe gastrointestinal distress, such as vomiting and diarrhea, often accompanied by abdominal pain and cramps. In extreme cases, it can lead to shock, coma, and even death.

Chronic Exposure

Long-term exposure to lower levels of arsenic, often found in contaminated water or food, can lead to chronic arsenic poisoning. This manifests as skin problems (like pigmentation changes and lesions), peripheral neuropathy, gastrointestinal symptoms, and a feeling of general malaise.

Cancer Risks

Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen. Chronic exposure increases the risk of various cancers, including skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancers. The risk is heightened in individuals who consume arsenic-contaminated water over extended periods.

Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

Long-term arsenic exposure has been linked to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. It also poses a risk to lung health, contributing to chronic bronchitis and other pulmonary issues.

Developmental Effects

Pregnant women exposed to arsenic face a higher risk of miscarriages, stillbirths, and preterm births. Additionally, arsenic exposure can affect a child’s cognitive development and increase the risk of illnesses in later life.

Environmental Effects of Arsenic

Arsenic, while a natural component of the Earth’s crust, can become a significant environmental pollutant due to human activities. Its environmental effects are extensive and concerning.

Water Contamination

One of the primary environmental concerns is the contamination of groundwater. Arsenic can leach into water sources from natural deposits or as a result of industrial processes, leading to contamination of drinking water, which poses serious health risks to human and animal populations.

Soil Contamination

Arsenic can accumulate in soils, especially near mining sites or areas where arsenic-laden pesticides and herbicides have been used. This leads to reduced soil fertility and can result in the accumulation of arsenic in crops, thus entering the food chain.

Impact on Aquatic Life

In aquatic environments, arsenic can be toxic to fish, amphibians, and other aquatic organisms. It can disrupt various physiological processes in marine life, leading to decreased reproduction rates and increased mortality.


Arsenic can bioaccumulate in the tissues of plants and animals, posing a risk to species higher up the food chain, including humans. This accumulation can have long-term ecological impacts.

Air Pollution

Arsenic can also be released into the air through industrial processes, such as smelting and coal combustion. This contributes to air pollution and can have adverse effects on respiratory health in humans and animals.

What Does Arsenic Do to Humans?

Arsenic exposure can lead to severe health issues, including skin lesions, organ damage, and increased cancer risk.

Where Is Arsenic Commonly Found?

Arsenic is often found in groundwater, industrial areas, pesticides, and some foods, particularly rice and seafood.

Is Arsenic Poisonous to Touch?

Arsenic in solid form isn’t typically harmful to touch, but its dust or soluble forms can be toxic.

Is Arsenic a Slow Poison?

Yes, arsenic is a slow poison, causing gradual health deterioration over long-term exposure, often unnoticed.

Arsenic, a naturally occurring element, has diverse uses but poses significant health risks. It’s crucial in various industries, yet its toxicity necessitates careful handling and awareness. Understanding arsenic’s properties, applications, and health impacts is key for safe usage and environmental preservation.

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