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Created by: Team Maths -, Last Updated: May 28, 2024


A multiplier is a number used in mathematics to multiply another number. It’s a fundamental concept in arithmetic and is essential for understanding various mathematical operations, especially in algebra and higher-level math.

What is Multiplier?

A multiplier is a quantity by which a given number (the multiplicand) is multiplied to obtain a product.

Multiplier Formula

The multiplier formula is used to determine the number of times one number (the multiplicand) is taken to reach a specific product. The formula is expressed as:

This calculation is fundamental in various mathematical and real-world applications.

Steps to Find the Multiplier

Finding the multiplier involves determining the number by which a given number (multiplicand) must be multiplied to obtain a desired product. This process is essential in solving various mathematical problems, including algebraic equations and real-life applications. Below are the steps to find the multiplier along with examples for better understanding.

  1. Identify the Product and the Multiplicand:
    • The product is the result of the multiplication.
    • The multiplicand is the number that is being multiplied.
  2. Use the Division Method:
    • Divide the product by the multiplicand.
    • The result of this division is the multiplier.

Example: Basic Calculation

Suppose you have a product of 36 and a multiplicand of 6, and you need to find the multiplier.


Thus, the multiplier is 6.

Types of Multiplier

Arithmetic Multipliers

Arithmetic multipliers are used in basic arithmetic operations to scale numbers. For instance, in the multiplication 5Γ—4=20, 4 is the multiplier that scales 5 to 20.

Algebraic Multipliers

In algebra, multipliers are coefficients that scale variables. For example, in the equation 3x=15, 3 is the multiplier that scales the variable x to 15.

Geometric Multipliers

Geometric multipliers involve scaling dimensions in geometry. For example, if each side of a square is multiplied by 2, the area of the square is multiplied by 2Β²=4.

Scalar Multipliers in Vectors

In vector mathematics, scalar multipliers scale the magnitude of vectors. For example, multiplying vector v by scalar k results in a new vector kv with a magnitude scaled by k.

Economic Multipliers

Though not strictly a mathematical concept, economic multipliers measure the effect of a change in economic activity. For example, a fiscal multiplier indicates how much economic output increases with addition of government spending.

Properties of a Multiplier

Commutative Property: Multiplication is commutative, meaning the order of the multiplicand and multiplier can be switched without changing the product. For instance, 4Γ—7=7Γ—4=28.

Associative Property: The way in which numbers are grouped in multiplication does not change the product. For example, (2Γ—3)Γ—4=2Γ—(3Γ—4).

Identity Property: Multiplying any number by 1 leaves the number unchanged. Here, 1 is called the multiplicative identity.

Application in Real-Life Scenarios


In economics, a multiplier effect is the idea that an initial spending can lead to a larger increase in overall economic activity. For example, an increase in government spending can boost consumer income, which in turn increases consumer spending and further stimulates the economy.


In physics, multipliers are used to express how physical quantities scale with each other. For example, in optics, the magnification of a lens is the multiplier that describes how much larger or smaller an image is compared to the object.

Multiplier in Algebra

In algebra, the concept of a multiplier extends to algebraic expressions and equations. For example:


Here, x can be seen as the multiplier of y.

Importance of Multipliers

  • Simplifying Complex Calculations: Multipliers help in breaking down complex calculations into simpler, manageable parts.
  • Scaling: Multipliers are crucial in scaling values up or down, which is particularly useful in fields like engineering, computer science, and economics.
  • Proportionality: Understanding multipliers is key to solving problems involving ratios and proportions.


Which is Multiplier and Multiplicand?

In multiplication, the multiplicand is the number being multiplied, and the multiplier is the number by which the multiplicand is multiplied. For example, 5Γ—3, 5 in is the multiplicand, and 3 is the multiplier.

How to Find the Multiplier of a Number?

To find the multiplier of a number, divide the product by the multiplicand. The formula is: Multiplier= Product​/Multiplicand
This yields the number of times the multiplicand is counted.

What is a Multiplier Simple?

A multiplier is a number by which another number (the multiplicand) is multiplied to get a product. It indicates how many times the multiplicand is considered in the multiplication process.

What are the Three Types of Multipliers?

The three types of multipliers are:
Fiscal multipliers in economics
Financial multipliers in investments
Numerical multipliers in basic arithmetic and algebra

What is a Multiplier Also Called?

A multiplier is also referred to as a scaling factor or coefficient in various contexts, indicating its role in scaling up or down the value of the multiplicand.

How Do You Use Multiplier in a Sentence?

You can use multiplier in a sentence like this: “In the equation 6Γ—4=24, the number 4 is the multiplier, indicating how many times the number 6 is taken.”

What is the Number to be Multiplied Called Multiplier?

No, the number to be multiplied is called the multiplicand. The multiplier is the number that specifies how many times the multiplicand is considered.

What is Multiplier with Example?

A multiplier is a number that determines how many times another number (the multiplicand) is counted in multiplication. For example, in 3Γ—4=12, 4 is the multiplier.

Which Comes First, Multiplier or Multiplicand?

In mathematical notation, the multiplicand usually comes first, followed by the multiplier. For example, in 5Γ—3, 5 is the multiplicand, and 3 is the multiplier.

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