# Arithmetic

Created by: Team Maths - Examples.com, Last Updated: May 7, 2024

## What is Arithmetic?

Arithmetic is the fundamental branch of mathematics that involves the study and application of basic operations on numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It forms the basis for more advanced mathematical disciplines and is essential for everyday calculations. Arithmetic also explores properties of numbers and operations, including fractions, decimals, and percentages. This branch of math is crucial for developing critical thinking and problem-solving skills and is widely used in every aspect of daily life and across all scientific and business fields.

## What Are Arithmetic Operations?

Arithmetic operations represent the core of basic mathematics, comprising addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These operations serve as the pillars of arithmetic and are deeply embedded in daily life.

The symbols representing these fundamental operations are as follows:

• Subtraction
• Multiplication ×
• Division ÷

Addition stands as a fundamental arithmetic operation that merges two or more numbers into a single sum. For instance, in the equations 2 + 5 = 7 and 6 + 2 = 8, the ‘+’ symbol represents the addition operator.

The process of adding multiple values, more than two, is termed summation. This involves specific methods to aggregate 𝑛 number of values efficiently.

In the context of addition, the identity element is 0. This means adding 0 to any number yields that number unchanged. Conversely, the inverse element of a number is its negative. Adding a number and its negative results in zero, the additive identity. For example, adding -5 to 5 results in 0, as shown: 5+(−5)=0.

Here are further examples of addition:

• 8+10=18
• 12+5=17

## Subtraction (−)

Subtraction is often described as the inverse of addition. It calculates the difference between two numbers: the minuend (the first number) and the subtrahend (the second number). The operation is indicated by the minus symbol (−).

The result of subtraction varies based on the relationship between the minuend and the subtrahend:

• If the minuend is greater than the subtrahend, the difference is positive.
• If the minuend is less than the subtrahend, the result is negative.
• If the minuend and subtrahend are equal, the difference is zero.

Examples:

• 4−3=1
• 3−4=−1

## Multiplication (×)

Multiplication combines two values, similar to addition and subtraction, resulting in a single value known as the product. The two original values in the multiplication process are referred to as the multiplicand and the multiplier, or more commonly, both are called factors.

The multiplication of 𝑎a and 𝑏 is typically expressed as 𝑎⋅𝑏 or 𝑎×𝑏, where ‘×’ symbolizes the multiplication operator. In programming and software languages, where typical mathematical symbols may not be readily available on keyboards, multiplication is often represented as 𝑎∗𝑏 (* is known as the asterisk).

For instance:

• 4×5=20
• 2×3=6

## Division (÷)

Division is essentially the inverse operation of multiplication. It is represented by the symbols ‘÷’ or ‘/’. This operation calculates the quotient of two numbers, where the dividend (the number being divided) is split by the divisor (the number by which the division is made).

The quotient will be greater than 1 if the dividend is larger than the divisor, provided both numbers are positive. Conversely, the quotient will be less than 1 if the dividend is smaller than the divisor.

For example:

• 10÷2=5
• 9÷3=3

## Arithmetic Sequence

An arithmetic sequence is a series of numbers in which the difference between any two successive members is a constant, known as the common difference. This defining characteristic sets arithmetic sequences apart from other types of numerical series.

### Structure of an Arithmetic Sequence

The general form of an arithmetic sequence can be written as: 𝑎,𝑎+𝑑,𝑎+2𝑑,𝑎+3𝑑,….where:

• 𝑎 is the first term of the sequence,
• 𝑑 is the common difference,
• 𝑎+𝑛𝑑 represents the nth term of the sequence.

## Arithmetic Solved Problems

### Problem 1: Basic Operations

Question: If you buy 3 books for \$45 each and sell them for \$50 each, how much profit do you make in total?

Answer: To find the total profit, first calculate the total cost of the books and the total selling price. Then subtract the total cost from the total selling price.

Total Cost=3×\$45=\$135 T

otal Selling Price=3×\$50=\$150

Total Selling Price=3×\$50=\$150 Profit=\$150−\$135=\$15Profit=\$150−\$135=\$15

Total Profit: \$15

### Problem 2: Fractions

Question: Maria has a ribbon that is 4 meters long. She cuts it into pieces that are 2/3 meters long each. How many pieces of ribbon does she have?

Answer: To find the number of pieces, divide the total length of the ribbon by the length of each piece

Number of Pieces= 2​/4​=4×2/3​=6

### Problem 3: Percentages

Question: An item is originally priced at \$80, but is on sale for 25% off. How much do you pay for the item?

Answer: First, calculate the discount amount, then subtract it from the original price to find the sale price.

Discount Amount=\$80×25%=\$80×0.25=\$20

Sale Price=\$80−\$20=\$60

Sale Price: \$60

### Problem 4: Multi-step Operations

Question: A farmer has 250 chickens and sells them for \$10 each. He then buys 300 more chickens at \$8 each. How much total money did he spend on the new chickens, and what is his net income from these transactions?

Answer: First, calculate the total income from selling the original chickens, then the expense on the new chickens, and finally the net income.

Income from Selling=250×\$10=\$2500

Net Income=\$2500−\$2400=\$100

Net Income: \$100

### Problem 5: Mixed Operations with Decimals

Question: A car travels 150 kilometers consuming 20 liters of fuel. If the fuel costs \$1.30 per liter, what is the total cost of the fuel?

Answer: First calculate the total amount of fuel used, then multiply by the cost per liter.

Total Fuel Cost=20×\$1.30=\$26.00

Total Cost of Fuel: \$26.00

## What is the Basic Arithmetic Mean?

The arithmetic mean, commonly known as the average, is calculated by summing a set of numerical values and dividing the sum by the count of those values. It provides a central value for a data set.

## What is Arithmetic Explained Simply?

Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics dealing with numbers and the basic operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It forms the foundation for all quantitative calculations in daily life and advanced math.

## What is a Real-Life Example of Arithmetic Means?

A real-life example of using the arithmetic mean is calculating the average score of a student. For instance, if a student scores 80, 85, and 90 on three tests, the average score is calculated as (80+85+90)/3=85.

## What are Arithmetic Skills?

Arithmetic skills refer to the ability to perform basic math operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These skills are essential for solving everyday problems, from budgeting to cooking measurements.

## What is the Simple Word for Arithmetic?

The simple word for arithmetic is “math,” referring specifically to the most basic aspect of mathematics focused on numbers and operations

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